Dhimmitude: History: Jihad

History of Jihad

The relations of Muslims and non-Muslims were set in a context of a war: jihad. Its justification by Qur'anic verses and hadiths provides to jihad, the war against non-Muslims, a theological base. Jihad establishes a single pattern for relations between Muslims and non-Muslims and is central to their relationship. Jihad can be examined at three levels: its doctrine, its institutions, and its historical manifestations.

The ideology of jihad was conceived after Muhammad death. It encompasses a doctrine aiming at the Islamization of the world, supported by military institutions and tactics of war, all being considered as binding the Islamic community (umma). Jihad represents the Islamic worldview of war and peace, it constitutes a specialized domain of Islamic theology and law.

Jihad doctrine divides the peoples of the world into two irreconcilable groups: the dar al-Islam (the land of Islam) and the dar al-harb, (land of war) the non-Muslim world, destined to come under Islamic jurisdiction either by the peaceful conversion of its inhabitants, or by armed conflict. Jihad is the permanent state of war of the dar al-Islam against infidels until they submit to Islamic domination. Peace is accepted only temporarily according to circumstances. The institution of jihad regulates the conduct of war according to religious rules.

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